Study Guide for PSYCH 100 exam 1

September 10, 2010

Study List for Exam One

Note: This is not to be taken, in any way, as an exhaustive list.  You are expected to review any concepts covered in your text book or in class lectures & discussions.

General Things you should know for all chapters:

  • Definitions of all concepts and key terms in text
  • Any additional definitions added in class notes

1) Scientific Study of Psychology

  • Definition of psychology
  • History of psychology: origins, important people and events
  • Psychology today – perspectives and specialty areas (what degree to prescribe meds?)
  • What is it about how psychology is studied that does (or does not) make it scientific?
  • What are three critical steps needed to approach the study of psychology (or anything) scientifically?
  • Describe the scientific method —also called the cycle of research
  • How are an idea, a theory, and a hypothesis different? Be able to define the last two terms.
  • What are the 4 major goals of science and how are they linked to basic and applied research?
  • Define basic research and applied research
  • Know the importance of random selection and random assignment.
  • Know research terms such as — population, sample, variable, etc.
  • Know the different types of observational research
  • Know how descriptive statistics is used to summarize and describe information gathered in research.
  • Know how inferential statistics is used to decide the significance of particular findings.
  • What is a correlation?  Know how we assess the strength of a reported correlation.
  • Know positive and negative correlation.
  • What are two limitations on the use of correlational findings or why can a correlation not be used to show cause and effect?  Know problem of direction and third variable problem.
  • What type of research is necessary to discuss evidence of cause and effect?
  • Know the terms and details discussed for experiments—- IV, DV, Control Group, Random assignment, Control, single-blind, double-blind, etc. etc.

Memory

  • Know main concepts, sub-concepts, and key terms for memory and learning
  • Know Encoding and things that impact encoding
    • Rehearsal, organization & chunking, emotion, etc.
  • Know the difference between automatic and controlled processing
  • Know the different theories for how information is processed into long-term memory
  • Know the three stages of memory processing: sensory, short-term, & long-term
    • Know the capacity of each; what impacts information transfer from one stage to the next
  • Know the different theories for how memory is organized including semantic network model
  • Know the three types of long-term memory and be able to recognize examples of each
  • Know what impacts retrieval — cues, emotions, context, etc.
  • Know about the misinformation effect and be able to relate this idea to the Jennifer Thompson rape case
  • Know the different theories of forgetting discussed in class and in your text and be able to define and distinguish between them

Learning

  • Be able to relate the definition to memory — as discussed in class
  • Know what is meant by associative learning
  • Two of the three theories of learning that you must know are considered associative theories of learning: C.C. and O.C.
  • Be able to define classical conditioning (CC) and know what association this type of learning is based on
  • Know all of the terms associated with classical conditioning
  • Be able to respond to examples of CC such as those practiced and discussed in class
  • Know the following terms and how they apply to both classical and operant conditioning:
    • Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous recovery, Generalization, discrimination
  • Be able to define operant conditioning (OC) and know what association this type of learning is based on
  • Know the principles of reinforcement and all terms associated with this concept
  • Know punishment and all terms associated with this concept, including the noted “problems with punishment”
  • Be able to respond to Reinforcement & Punishment examples similar to those practiced and discussed in class
  • Know the difference between continuous and partial reinforcement
  • Know the schedules of reinforcement and be able to respond to examples similar to those used in class
  • Know definitions for cognitive maps, latent learning, etc.
  • Know the research studies discussed throughout the chapter
  • Know the basic ideas stated for Observational Learning (aka Social Learning Theories)
    • Know modeling
    • Know Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment; the results; critiques of the results, etc.
    • What current day studies looking at modeling of aggressive / violent behavior seem to be the modern day extension of such earlier work?
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